The eastern portion of the Major and Minor Caucasus mountain ranges, which make up the Republic of Azerbaijan’s territory, are notable for their complicated geological structure, richness, and variety of minerals.
From the beginning, Azerbaijan was recognized as an oil-producing nation. According to historical evidence, oil was first discovered in the Absheron Peninsula during the 7th and 6th centuries BC.
Historical documents from the Middle Ages mention the existence and use of copper, gold, silver, and lead mines in Azerbaijan.
Due to the complexity of natural products, interest in geological exploration of natural oil displays, oilfields, and oil and gas-bearing regions of mineral raw resources is extremely important for the technological, economic, and social growth of society.
As a result, the importance of mineral reserves in the modern world is growing.
Being rich in shared natural resources, a country’s mineral reserves are one of the key indicators of its economic and social-political independence.
The natural resources in Azerbaijan have increased the country’s economic potential through the efficient exploitation of the different mineral deposits that have been discovered on its territory and the development of the mining and processing industries.
Azerbaijan is a nation with abundant natural resources and exceptionally good environmental conditions.
The principal terrain types of the republic include snow-capped peaks, tall mountains, lush foothill soils, vast plains, and the Lowest Land Points Below Ocean Level.
The variety in environmental circumstances, particularly more natural resources than in some other countries, has been brought about by this complex landscape structure.
Top 14 Natural Resources in Azerbaijan
The following are the top 14 natural resources in Azerbaijan
1. Arable Land
According to data from the World Bank, about 23.5% of Azerbaijan’s land was regarded as arable in 2015.
According to the data, Azerbaijan’s arable land area has been growing gradually since 2004.
In Azerbaijan, a variety of crops are grown, with cotton, grapes, and potatoes among the most significant.
One of the most significant economic sectors in Azerbaijan has been agriculture since its early historical eras.
The government implemented certain efforts to raise the country’s agricultural productivity in the 1990s after identifying some of the major issues the Azerbaijani agricultural industry faced.
Grapes have been one of the most significant crops in Azerbaijan for a significant portion of its history.
In Azerbaijan, many foreign grape types flourish, including Pinot noir, Pervenets Magaracha, and Kishmish Moldavski.
The native grape varietals in the nation include Agdam Kechiemdzhei, Black Shani, and Ganja Pink.
Many areas of Azerbaijan have vineyards, including those around the Kür River and at the foot of the Caucus mountains.
According to the Azerbaijani government, grapes are grown on around 7% of the country’s total agricultural land.
The grapes are a crucial component in Azerbaijani wine, which is well-known throughout the world for its superior quality.
The majority of the wine produced in the nation at this time was sold to Russia and Belarus thanks to significant government investments in Azerbaijan’s grape production during the Soviet era.
Today, iron ores are regarded as one of the primary pillars of economic growth and industry.
Azerbaijan’s region now has a reliable mineral raw basis thanks to the confirmation of three ore deposits with industrially substantial reserves.
They are all represented by the Dashkasan, Southern Dashkasan, and Damir cobalt magnetite deposits, which are all found in the Dashkasan ore region.
The Republic’s primary ore regions for copper deposits are Balakan-Zaqatala, Gadabay, Qarabag, and Ordubad.
Basic copper reserves are concentrated in copper-pyrite and pyrite-polymetal types of deposits and displayed in the Balkan-Zaqatala ore region, whereas they are mainly found in copper-porphyry, molybdenum-copper-porphyry, and gold-copper-pyrite types of fields and displays in the Minor Caucasus and Nakhichevan rugged zone.
The Republic’s Qaradag copper-porphyry deposit, which contains 4.7% of all ore reserves, is the only copper-porphyry deposit with industrial reserves that have been proven.
5. Zinc and lead
The following deposits of polymetallic ore have verified reserves: Filizchay, Kasdag, Katekh, Mehmana, and Gumushluk.
Both the Nasirvaz-Agdara and Shakarbay polymetal ore deposits in the Ordubad ore region of Nakhichevan and the Qazakh ore deposit in the Minor Caucasus were analyzed for their lead reserves and their predictive resources were estimated.
The precise exploration of the Filizchay pyrite-polymetallic deposit, which is ranked among the greatest fields in the world and is thought to be the biggest in Europe, was finished, and its industrial reserves were confirmed.
The deposit has a reserve of 95 ml tons of ore which is unusual in its compact ore bulk.
Copper (average amount is 0.59%), zinc (3.63%), lead (1.43%), silver (44.2 g/t), bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, selenium, tellurium, indium, and other basic valuable elements are predicted to be present in industrial reserves of ore.
Molybdenum reserves that are listed in the state balance are concentrated in the Ordubad ore region’s Paragachay deposit (alongside the Qapijiq area).
In the Gyoydag, Diakhchay, Misdag-Shalala copper-porphyry deposits in the Ordubad ore region of the Nakhichevan rugged zone and the Damirli copper-porphyry deposit in the Qarabag ore region of the Minor Caucasus, contiguous component molybdenum reserves were assessed, admitted to area balance, and their prognostic resources estimated.
Alunite ores were found and exploited as a result of earlier geological research projects conducted on the Republic of Zaylik land.
The deposit is situated 18 kilometers east of the Qushchu Bridge in the Dashkasan area.
In the Jurassic volcanic deposits, alunite ores are abundant and are represented by two schistous ore layers.
Alunite and quartz make up the majority of ores. Alunite content varies from 10 to 80 percent, with an average proportion of 53 percent throughout the deposit.
29.7% of the Republic’s total mineral reserves are made up of alunite ores.
The construction of a sustainable and long-term gold mining sector has excellent prospects on Azerbaijani land.
It has been confirmed by the numerous gold deposits (both isolated gold deposits and deposits complex with other metals) found over the past few decades because they contain a small amount of gold mineralization predicted in prospective ore-bearing zones.
Gold reserves are estimated and confirmed as contiguous components in the ores of Filizchay, Katekh, and Kasdag polymetal, Qaradag copper-porphyry deposits, as well as reserves of three unique gold deposits (Qizilbulag, Vejnali, and Zod (Soyudlu) explored in state balance of Republican mineral reserves and confirmed of industrially significant reserves, were reported on January 1, 2006.
Additionally, reserves from the C2 category-evaluated Qosha, Agyurd, Pyazbashi, Dagkasaman, Gadabay, and Agduzdag deposits were recorded in the area balance.
9. The Burning Mountain (Yanar dag)
The blazing mountain, a historical landmark of unknown origin situated in the town of Mahammedi on the Absheron Peninsula near Baku on the shore of the Caspian Sea, was caused by the escape of natural gas at the mountain’s base.
The position is on the left side of the Mahammedi-Digah highway, 27 km from Baku’s city center and about 2 km from the village center.
The natural gas flowing to the surface from the subsurface oil and gas storing layers through fissures that were formed by volcanic-tectonic motions and processes is what is causing the flame in this location.
The height of the flame might occasionally reach 10-15 meters.
The “Burning Mountain” area was designated as state-cultural and nature preservation by the Decree of the Azerbaijani President dated May 2, 2007.
This location’s land area is 64.55 hectares. The “Gurd Yuvasi,” two ancient cemeteries, a mosque that dates back thousands of years, the Gothursu Fountain, the Ali Stone, Kardashi, the Girmaki Valley, and Yanar Dag are all located in this region.
10. The Mud Volcanos
Mud volcanoes are known to form in Azerbaijan a distinctive and traditional region on Earth. Of the 2 000 well-known mud volcanoes on Earth, 344 are found in Azerbaijan’s east and along the Caspian Sea’s edge.
The Absheron Peninsula and Baku are where most of the mud volcanoes are located, and several of them have been preserved as natural landmarks.
Mud volcanoes are crucial for locating oil and gas exploration wells without the need for additional surveying expenses.
Mud volcanic clays are also regarded as valuable and significant minerals.
Additionally, the treatment of numerous disorders of the mental system, skin, and bone joints using volcanic mud is effective.
Volcanoes are crucial for the forecast of various phenomena, including earthquakes and seismic events.
In Azerbaijan, cotton is known as “white gold.”
Cotton is spread in Ancient East nations, primarily Iran, in the Caucasus areas, particularly in Azerbaijan.
The export of cotton textiles from cities like Barda, Nakhchivan, Beylagan, Ganja, Shamkir, and others to foreign countries, as well as the export of cotton fabrics from Shamakhi to Russia in the 15th century, can be emphasized.
Since the 18th century, Azerbaijan has increased its cotton exports to Russia. On the plains of Mil-Mughan and Shirvan, there were substantial cotton fields in the 18th century.
In Guba and Baku during the start of the 19th century, the cotton industry was growing.
Cotton cultivars from Egypt, the United States, and Azerbaijan’s own Mazandaran and Iravan were all grown there in the 1930s.
More than 8350 rivers make up the river system of the Republic, with 2 of them having lengths of more than 500 km, 22 having lengths between 101 and 500 km, 324 having lengths between 11 and 100 km, and the remaining having lengths of less than 10 km.
The Kur River and its tributaries, as well as rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea, make up the Republic’s river network.
In Azerbaijan, 450 lakes totaling 395 km2 in size have been found, with 10 of the lakes having an area larger than 10 km2.
Sarsu Lake, which is in the Kur-Araz lowland and has a water surface area of 65.7 km2 and a water volume of 59.1 million m3, is the largest in the Republic.
Tufangöl (area 0.01 km2, volume 0.11 million m3), which is 3277 meters above sea level and is situated in the Damiraparanchay basin, is the highest mountain lake in the Republic.
The renowned Lake Goygol is one of the Republic’s most beautiful lakes. The lake was created in the middle of the Aghsuchay stream following a powerful earthquake in 1139.
14. Oil and Gas
The oil and gas sector is significant. Both onshore fields and the Caspian Sea are used to extract oil.
One of the oldest oil-producing regions in the world is the Republic of Azerbaijan’s territory, particularly the Absheron Peninsula. Oil from Absheron was extracted and shipped to numerous nations in the VII–VI centuries.
In Azerbaijan, up to 1985, around 1.2 billion tons of oil were produced, with 25% coming from offshore oilfields.
The oil produced on Azerbaijani soil is of high quality, contains little paraffin, and has a low sulfur concentration. Oil has a wide range of densities (780-940 kg/m3).
The oil that was produced from the Maykop and Agjagil sediments is regarded as the only oil in the entire globe to have therapeutic capabilities in Naftalan.
List of all Natural Resources in Azerbaijan
Below is the list of all the natural resources in Azerbaijan
- Lead and zinc
- Facing stone
- Cement raw material
- Construction stones
- Bituminous sands
- Perlite, pumice
- Gypsum, anhydride, alabaster
- Bentonite clays
- Sodium chloride
- Limestone for flux and soda
- Ceramics raw material
- Mineral dye (clayey ochre)
- Quartz sands
- Icelandic spar
- Refractory and hard clays
- The Burning Mountain (Yanar dag)
- The Mud Volcanos
- Water reservoirs
The richness of Azerbaijan’s natural resources has increased the economic growth of the country massively and this is due to the presence of various natural resources used for construction. Azerbaijan is also a very good tourist location so, if you are looking for a place to go, Visit Azerbaijan.
14 Natural Resources in Azerbaijan – FAQs
Is Azerbaijan rich in natural resources?
Azerbaijan is rich in natural resources, and this is because of its complex geological structure.
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A passion-driven environmentalist by heart. Lead content writer at EnvironmentGo.
I strive to educate the public about the environment and its problems.
It has always been about nature, we ought to protect not destroy.