HOW TO PRODUCE ENERGY FROM WASTE
1) THERMAL TECHNOLOGY -waste to energy technology :
Waste treatment that are conducted involving high temperatures are called Thermal treatment,
the heat generated from this Thermal Treatment can be used to generate energy.
The following are examples of Thermal Technology;
d) Plasma arc Gasification
This process usually takes plastics and biomass as their primary ingredients and is usually conducted at very high temperatures.
It is another developing process employed in waste to energy generation. It converts carbonaceous substances to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and some amounts of hydrogen.
This process like incineration requires high temperatures to obtain results, the difference is that combustion does not occur in gasification.
Steam and/or oxygen is also used in this process where usually fossil fuels or organic substances are used.
The gas that is produced from the waste procedure is called SYNTHESIS GAS, or SYNGAS for short, and is considered as a good means of alternate energy.
This is another waste to energy process used majorly in industrial processes. Pyrolysis is just like HYDROUS PYROLYSIS without the use of oxygen. Pyrolysis employs agricultural waste or organic waste from industries.
Plasma arc Gasification:
As the name implies uses plasma technologies to obtain syngas. A plasma torch is used to ionize gas and there after obtain syngas. This process generates electricity while compressing the waste.
2) NON THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES -waste to energy technology
a) Anaerobic digestion
b) Mechanical biological treatment.
This is a slow process, here in, micro organisms are used to breakdown the biodegradable content. No oxygen is present during the procedure.
It is used both domestically and even commercially to tap the release of energy during the process and use it.
Anaerobic waste to energy technology is seen as a good way to reduce the green house gases from the atmosphere and also as a working replacement for fossil fuels.
The process works as a boom for developing countries for creating low energies for cooking and lighting in homes.
Biogas is used to run a gas engine and energy is created for small scale use.
Mechanical biological treatment:
This process uses domestic waste as well as industrial and commercial waste to generate products.
Worldwide, waste to energy is seen as a development tool for emerging countries.
The energy generations from these technologies are small scale right now and their employment for domestic and industrial use is sparse.
However, they are seen as the energy solutions for tomorrow that are set to affect the world immensely.
Onwukwe Victory Uzoma
An Environmental Technologist/Engineer.