WHICH PROJECTS REQUIRE EIA?
The projects to be subjected to EIA are specified in the Second Schedule of EMCA 1999 and include:
1. General: –
a) an activity out of character with its surrounding;
b) any structure of a scale not in keeping with its surrounding;
c) major changes in land use.
2. Urban Development including:-
a) designation of new townships;
b) establishment of industrial estates;
c) establishment or expansion of recreational areas;
d) establishment or expansion of recreational townships in mountain areas, national parks, and game
e) shopping centers and complexes.
3. Transportation including –
a) all major roads;
b) all roads in scenic, wooded or mountainous areas and wetlands;
c) railway lines;
d) airports and airfields;
e) oil and gas pipelines;
f) water transport.
4. Dams, rivers, and water resources including –
a) storage dams, barrages, and piers;
b) river diversions and water transfer between catchments;
c) flood control schemes;
d) drilling for the purpose of utilizing groundwater resources including geothermal energy.
5. Aerial spraying.
6. Mining, including quarrying and open-cast extraction of –
a) precious metals;
c) metalliferous ores;
f) limestone and dolomite;
g) stone and slate;
h) aggregates, sand, and gravel;
j) exploitation for the production of petroleum in any form;
k) extracting alluvial gold with the use of mercury.
7. Forestry related activities including –
a) timber harvesting;
b) clearance of forest areas;
c) reforestation and afforestation.
8. Agriculture including –
a) large-scale agriculture;
b) use of pesticide;
c) introduction of new crops and animals;
d) use of fertilizers;
9. Processing and manufacturing industries including:-
mineral processing, reduction of ores and minerals;
b) smelting and refining of ores and minerals;
d) brick and earthware manufacture;
e) cement works and lime processing;
g) fertilizer manufacture or processing;
h) explosive plants;
i) oil refineries and petro-chemical works;
j) tanning and dressing of hides and skins;
k) abattoirs and meat-processing plants;
l) chemical works and process plants;
m) brewing and malting;
n) bulk grain processing plants;
o) fish-processing plants;
p) pulp and paper mills;
q) food-processing plants
r) plants for the manufacture or assembly of motor vehicles;
s) plants for the construction or repair of aircraft or railway equipment;
t) plants for the manufacture of tanks, reservoirs, and sheet-metal containers;
u) plants for the manufacture of coal briquettes;
v) plant for manufacturing batteries;
10. Electrical infrastructure including –
a) electricity generation stations;
b) electrical transmission lines;
c) electrical sub-stations;
d) pumped-storage schemes.
11. Management of hydrocarbons including:-
the storage of natural gas and combustible or explosive fuels.
12. Waste disposal including –
a) sites for hazardous waste disposal;
b) sewage disposal works;
c) works involving major atmospheric emissions;
d) works emitting offensive odors;
e) sites for solid waste disposal.
13. Natural conservation areas including –
a) creation of national parks, game reserves, and buffer zones;
b) establishment of wilderness areas;
c) formulation or modification of forest management policies;
d) formulation or modification of water catchment management policies;
e) policies for the management of ecosystems, especially by use of fire;
f) commercial exploitation of natural fauna and flora;
g) introduction of alien species of fauna and flora into ecosystems.
14. Nuclear Reactors.
15. Major developments in biotechnology including the introduction and testing of genetically modified organisms.
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