This is a prepared list of projects that require EIA before execution and it is instituted under the law that whoever wants to carry out any of these projects must conduct an EIA and present a certificate of completion and approval.
EIA is usually required for a development project when the project has the potential to affect the environment, especially in a significant way.
EIA simply means Environmental Impact Assessment; any project that has the potential of affecting the health of the environment surely requires EIA, conducted and approved by environmental agencies.
The need to carry out an EIA comes from the European EIA Directive. The directive is given effect through different legislation.
The directive divides projects into 2 different types: Annex I projects and Annex II projects.
Table of Contents
Types of EIA Projects
Annex I projects
Annex I projects always require an EIA. These include large-scale projects with obvious environmental effects, such as:
crude oil refineries
nuclear generating stations and other nuclear reactors
larger-scale quarries and open-cast mines.
Annex II projects
Not all Annex II projects are on the list of projects that require EIA. If it’s decided that the project is likely to have ‘significant’ environmental effects, there will usually be a threshold to determine if a case-by-case screening decision is required.
Examples of Annex II projects include:
industrial estate development projects (threshold – the area of the development exceeds 0.5 hectares)
an electric line installed above ground (threshold – with a voltage of 132 kilovolts or more).
In breaking this down for easier identification; the list of projects that require EIA generally.
List of Projects That Require EIA
WHICH PROJECTS REQUIRE EIA?
The projects to be subjected to EIA are specified in the Second Schedule of EMCA 1999 and include:
1. General: –
a) an activity out of character with its surrounding;
b) any structure of a scale not in keeping with its surrounding;
c) major changes in land use.
2. Urban Development including:-
a) designation of new townships;
b) establishment of industrial estates;
c) establishment or expansion of recreational areas;
d) establishment or expansion of recreational townships in mountain areas, national parks, and game
e) shopping centers and complexes.
3. Transportation including –
a) all major roads;
b) all roads in scenic, wooded or mountainous areas and wetlands;
c) railway lines;
d) airports and airfields;
e) oil and gas pipelines;
f) water transport.
4. Dams, rivers, and water resources including –
a) storage dams, barrages, and piers;
b) river diversions and water transfer between catchments;
c) flood control schemes;
d) drilling for the purpose of utilizing groundwater resources including geothermal energy.
5. Aerial spraying.
6. Mining, including quarrying and open-cast extraction of –
a) precious metals;
c) metalliferous ores;
f) limestone and dolomite;
g) stone and slate;
h) aggregates, sand, and gravel;
j) exploitation for the production of petroleum in any form;
k) extracting alluvial gold with the use of mercury.
7. Forestry related activities including –
a) timber harvesting;
b) clearance of forest areas;
c) reforestation and afforestation.
8. Agriculture including –
a) large-scale agriculture;
b) use of pesticide;
c) introduction of new crops and animals;
d) use of fertilizers;
9. Processing and manufacturing industries including:-
mineral processing, reduction of ores and minerals;
b) smelting and refining of ores and minerals;
d) brick and earthware manufacture;
e) cement works and lime processing;
g) fertilizer manufacture or processing;
h) explosive plants;
i) oil refineries and petro-chemical works;
j) tanning and dressing of hides and skins;
k) abattoirs and meat-processing plants;
l) chemical works and process plants;
m) brewing and malting;
n) bulk grain processing plants;
o) fish-processing plants;
p) pulp and paper mills;
q) food-processing plants
r) plants for the manufacture or assembly of motor vehicles;
s) plants for the construction or repair of aircraft or railway equipment;
t) plants for the manufacture of tanks, reservoirs, and sheet-metal containers;
u) plants for the manufacture of coal briquettes;
v) plant for manufacturing batteries;
10. Electrical infrastructure including –
a) electricity generation stations;
b) electrical transmission lines;
c) electrical sub-stations;
d) pumped-storage schemes.
11. Management of hydrocarbons including:-
the storage of natural gas and combustible or explosive fuels.
12. Waste disposal including –
a) sites for hazardous waste disposal;
b) sewage disposal works;
c) works involving major atmospheric emissions;
d) works emitting offensive odors;
e) sites for solid waste disposal.
13. Natural conservation areas including –
a) creation of national parks, game reserves, and buffer zones;
b) establishment of wilderness areas;
c) formulation or modification of forest management policies;
d) formulation or modification of water catchment management policies;
e) policies for the management of ecosystems, especially by use of fire;
f) commercial exploitation of natural fauna and flora;
g) introduction of alien species of fauna and flora into ecosystems.
14. Nuclear Reactors.
15. Major developments in biotechnology including the introduction and testing of genetically modified organisms.