8 Significant Environmental Impacts of Printing

For a very long time, the foundation of commercial operations has been paper and ink. It has proven impossible to overthrow or even change these firmly ingrained habits.

Our daily lives involve printing a lot of things, from office documents and images to textbooks and newspapers. Still, it is important to think about the environmental impacts of printing.

The volume and frequency of printing have increased as technology has developed and become more widely available. This has raised questions regarding the ecological effects of printing processes as well as their sustainability.

For offices worldwide that are unable to transition to paperless operations, printing must be limited to the bare minimum.

Significant Environmental Impacts of Printing

This article will examine the several facets of printing’s environmental impact, illuminating both its drawbacks and possible remedies.

  • Paper Production and Deforestation
  • Energy Consumption in Printing
  • Pollution and Water Usage
  • Location and Transport
  • Waste Generation and Disposal
  • E-waste from Printing Equipment
  • Carbon Footprint of Printing
  • Sustainable Printing Practices

1. Paper Production and Deforestation

When talking about how printing affects the environment, one of the main issues is the creation of paper. Deforestation results from the need for paper, as large tracts of trees are felled to make room for paper mills.

In addition to supplying oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide, trees are essential to the health of the environment. This equilibrium is upset by deforestation, which also contributes to biodiversity loss and climate change.

Roughly 35% of all harvested trees are thought to be utilized in the making of paper, to put the scope of paper production into context.

Although one could assume that paper use has decreased in the current digital era, research shows that during the previous 20 years, paper use has increased by 126%. A typical office worker uses ten thousand sheets of paper a year.

The enormous strain that this tremendous demand for wood pulp places on forests threatens to ruin the habitats of many different plant and animal species.

Furthermore, chemicals, like as chlorine compounds, are used in the process of turning wood pulp into paper, which can be harmful to the environment if not handled appropriately.

2. Energy Consumption in Printing

The enormous energy required to produce and run printing equipment is another major environmental problem associated with printing. Electricity is needed for printing presses, copiers, and other devices, and it is frequently produced by non-renewable resources like coal or natural gas.

Overuse of energy exacerbates climate change by adding to greenhouse gas emissions.

The fact that 500 million ink cartridges are thrown away each year serves as an example of the significance of using ink and toner responsibly.

Recycling and refilling used ink cartridges not only reduces the quantity of cartridges that end up in landfills but also reduces the energy and raw materials required to make new ones.

The environmental effect of producing ink and toner can also be reduced by using remanufactured cartridges or environmentally friendly substitutes. For more details, go to Sell Toner as well.

3. Pollution and Water Usage

Water is also needed in large quantities for the printing processes to produce paper and maintain equipment. Pollution and water scarcity can result from the extraction and treatment of water.

The chemicals used to make ink and toner pose a further threat to aquatic habitats because, if not handled properly, they can contaminate water sources.

One ton of paper requires between 10,000 and 20,000 gallons of water to produce. Particularly in locations where water is scarce, this enormous water use puts a burden on freshwater supplies.

Additionally, the wastewater produced during printing contains a variety of contaminants that can be harmful to aquatic life and water quality, such as solvents, heavy metals, and colors.


In the past ten or so years, ink has received very little attention while paper sourcing has received a lot of attention. Litho printing ink is derived from either vegetable or fossil oil.

It should go without saying that ink made from fossil fuels comes from non-renewable resources. Its production results in increased pollution, its use can be relatively hazardous, and it releases substances that contribute to global warming.

Additionally, processing leftover energy from fossil-based ink after use consumes more energy, and disposing of it properly increases the danger of contamination. Because it requires more energy and resources to “de-ink” the paper, it becomes more difficult to recycle.

The switch to plant-based inks has been going on for ten years or more, but you usually can’t find out what specific businesses are using until you ask, unless a printer is actively touting its environmental credentials.

The same ISO standards that apply to other facets of color quality management also apply to inks. In my perspective, there isn’t a good argument that inks made of fossil fuels provide a quality benefit.

There are problems with inks made from vegetable oil. Asking the printer about the type of ink they use and its properties for printing and the environment is vital because they may contain solvents, heavy metals, and other potentially harmful materials. We cannot accept that they are made of vegetable oil. That is not the whole story.


Bookbinding frequently uses gelatine- or petrochemical-based glues. The latter is troublesome if a book is ever required to be “vegan,” as gelatine is an animal product, especially when used in hardback binding.

The use of “Vegan approved” printer accreditations and non-fossil derived polymer glues by print companies is rising.


Plastics can occasionally be found in some binding supplies, such as ribbon markers, head and tail bands, and sewing threads. There are options to make these components entirely of textile fibers.

In the past, plastic has typically been used for laminates and wrapping (shrink-wrapping individual copies or in various ways to secure books during transit). These days, substitutes include cellulose, corn starch, vegetable oil, and other organic base ingredients; reusable containers are even better.

4. Location and Transport

Transportation costs the environment greatly. By now, I trust we all understand this. There’s a lot to be said about domestic manufacturing. But it’s rarely as easy as stating that the environmental impact increases with distance.

You might be selecting a “greener” option if you print extremely close to the market, while there is still an opportunity for improvement. Comparing the environmental impact of several solutions that are farther away can be more difficult.

The carbon cost of your product can be significantly impacted by the method of transportation—air, water, or rail—that is utilized to carry resources into position and subsequently deliver finished goods.

International travel sometimes combines multiple modes of transportation, including trucks and rail or ships, thus a detailed analysis is necessary to compare choices in a meaningful way.

It is also possible that the shorter carbon footprint of the farther-off option—using more freight by train than by truck—will offset the longer distance in a hypothetical comparison between two European merchants shipping books to the UK.

As daunting as it may seem, carbon calculations must be discussed with suppliers in the same manner as plane travel and other private transportation.

5. Waste Generation and Disposal

A large amount of waste is produced during printing, such as packaging materials, cartridges, and leftover paper. Waste that is not properly disposed of can contribute to contamination in the environment and overcrowd landfills.

Paper and ink breakdown can also emit methane, a strong greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.

Remember that in 2020, more than 2 million tons of paper and paperboard were disposed of in landfills in the United States alone. This is a major waste of a chance to recycle and lessen printing’s negative environmental effects.

Furthermore, incorrect ink and toner cartridge disposal can contaminate water and soil, endangering human health as well as the environment.

6. E-waste from Printing Equipment

The rapid obsolescence of printing equipment due to continuous technological advancements creates electronic trash or e-waste. Hazardous substances, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, found in e-waste can contaminate land and water if improperly treated.

E-waste must be recycled and disposed of responsibly to reduce its negative effects on the environment and promote sustainability.

According to the Global E-waste Monitor 2020, the amount of electronic garbage created globally in 2019 reached a record 53.6 million metric tons, of which only 17.4% were recycled.

Because dangerous compounds found in e-waste can seep into the environment and contaminate soil, groundwater, and even the air, inappropriate management of e-waste can have dire effects.

Mitigating these environmental dangers requires the implementation of efficient e-waste management solutions, such as recycling and appropriate disposal.

7. Carbon Footprint of Printing

It describes the entire quantity of greenhouse gases released during the extraction, manufacture, transportation, and disposal of raw materials in the printing process.

The use of carbon-intensive materials and the reliance on fossil fuels for energy have an impact on the carbon footprint of printing. To mitigate climate change, printing activities must reduce their carbon emissions.

Approximately 2.5 grams of carbon dioxide are released during the manufacturing of a single sheet of paper, which helps to illustrate the carbon footprint of printing. When the billions of pages printed globally are multiplied, the carbon emissions mount up quickly.

The printing industry’s total carbon footprint is further impacted by the transportation of printed products and the disposal of trash.

8. Sustainable Printing Practices

Thankfully, some steps may be taken to reduce printing’s negative environmental effects. Implementing sustainable printing techniques is one practical strategy. Using paper that is certified sustainable or derived from recycled materials is one way to do this.

By lowering the need for fresh pulp, recycled paper helps save trees and lessens deforestation. Paper conservation measures can include double-sided printing and print setting optimization.

Utilizing vegetable-based inks rather than petroleum-based inks is one way to practice sustainability in printing. Because they are derived from renewable resources, vegetable-based inks emit fewer volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which worsen air pollution.

Additionally, though insufficient, recycling paper waste, disposing of ink and toner cartridges appropriately, and promoting responsible printing practices among individuals and companies are crucial steps toward a more sustainable printing industry.

Digital Alternatives and Paperless Solutions

There are currently methods available that can significantly reduce the harmful environmental effects of printing, thanks to the growing usage of digital technology.

Paper use can be decreased and energy use can be minimized by adopting digital alternatives like e-books, online newspapers, and digital documents.

Implementing paperless solutions in households, workplaces, and educational institutions can significantly lower paper waste and its negative environmental effects.

Think about the advantages of digital alternatives: reading an e-book rather than a printed book reduces annual CO2 emissions by about 25 pounds and does away with the need for paper production, shipping, and disposal.

Additionally, the demand for printing and physical document storage can be reduced by utilizing cloud storage and digital collaboration capabilities. By adopting paperless solutions and switching to digital alternatives, people and organizations can drastically minimize their environmental impact.

Responsible Ink and Toner Usage

The type of ink and toner cartridges used also has an impact on how printing impacts the environment. Minimize your impact on the environment by using eco-friendly ink and toner made of non-toxic and renewable ingredients. Reusing and recycling ink cartridges can help save resources and cut down on waste production.

The fact that 500 million ink cartridges are thrown away each year serves as an example of the significance of using ink and toner responsibly.

Reusing and recycling ink cartridges can help cut down on the number of cartridges dumped in landfills as well as the energy and raw materials needed to produce new ones.

The environmental effect of producing ink and toner can also be reduced by using remanufactured cartridges or environmentally friendly substitutes.


Understanding and addressing printing’s negative environmental effects is essential. Printing techniques have a significant impact on the environment, ranging from waste generation and water consumption to deforestation and electricity consumption.

We can reduce the environmental impact of printing by implementing sustainable printing techniques, embracing digital alternatives, managing waste responsibly, and making thoughtful decisions.

To prioritize sustainable practices across the printing sector, individuals, corporations, and governments must work together.

Additionally, it’s critical to educate people and organizations on how printing affects the environment.

A more sustainable strategy can involve teaching users about responsible printing techniques, such as just printing what is required, utilizing print previews to prevent needless prints, and encouraging digital sharing and document archiving.

Reducing the environmental impact of printing can also be achieved in large part through government rules and legislation.

Establishing environmental guidelines for the printing sector, offering incentives for sustainable operations, and enforcing laws about recycling and waste management can all motivate companies to use greener printing techniques.


Editor at EnvironmentGo! | providenceamaechi0@gmail.com | + posts

A passion-driven environmentalist by heart. Lead content writer at EnvironmentGo.
I strive to educate the public about the environment and its problems.
It has always been about nature, we ought to protect not destroy.

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