29 Pros and Cons of Urbanization

The ratio of people living in rural and urban areas has shifted in recent years, with more people residing in urban areas. Urbanization is the process by which large numbers of people relocate from rural to urban locations.

Although there are numerous advantages to urbanization, it can also have unfavorable impacts on individuals, groups, and the environment. What are the benefits and drawbacks of urbanization, then?

Pros and Cons of Urbanization

Pros of Urbanization

  • Convenience from Urbanization
  • A Better Economy is Generated
  • Better Education
  • Some People Find Better Housing
  • An Improved Social Life
  • More Effective Medical Services
  • More Police and Security
  • People Can Use Their Time More Efficiently
  • More Options for Entertainment
  • Tourist Attractions
  • There Are More Stores in Cities
  • Access to The Electrical and Sewage System
  • Increased Internet Connectivity
  • Better Land Utilization
  • Average Higher Wages in Cities

1. Convenience from Urbanization

One of the numerous reasons people choose to relocate to a city is convenience. Nowadays, people can more easily access resources that they might not have had in a rural region, such as healthcare, education, and other services. Getting to the city is much easier than remaining in the countryside.

If you want to go out, it will be easier for you to travel to different places because they aren’t too far from your house. To travel to the city, a car is not always necessary.

You have access to modes of transportation that may not be available in your place of origin, such as taxis, buses, trains, subways, and others. In cities, signals carry greater weight than in rural areas, so Internet connectivity is generally better there.

Given how much the majority of people rely on the Internet, this is a compelling case for moving to the city.

2. A Better Economy is Generated

Businesses and industries are more concentrated in cities than in rural areas. In rural locations, there are few options to attract clients; therefore, individuals from the country can boost their income by relocating to the city.

They can relocate their businesses to cities to attract more customers. In addition, it’s simpler to get work in a metropolis than a rural one. Because there are more enterprises in the city, there are more employment chances. Regardless of experience, it will be easier for them to find work in the city.

More companies in the city are willing to hire recent grads. Opportunities in the country are limited to individuals with certain abilities, making it more challenging for people without experience to obtain work.

3. Better Education

Schools in cities are usually of the highest caliber. Small communities have few options for pupils looking for a better education because there aren’t many schools to pick from. both private and public educational institutions, for instance, are more numerous and diverse in cities.

Thanks to urbanization, schools may employ a large number of teachers to educate children. There are fewer schools in remote areas because there are fewer willing teachers there. Because of this, there wouldn’t be as many teachers as there would be in the city, and the schools would be understaffed.

Cities not only have excellent colleges and universities but also excellent public and private schools. The availability of numerous courses at the institutions encourages students to seek careers in the sectors in which they are interested.

4. Some People Find Better Housing

If you’re looking for a location to reside, the city is a terrific place to start. There are lots of places to look if you want to live close to the destinations you wish to visit. If you can’t afford a house, many apartments in the city are close to other places.

There aren’t many rental flats in remote areas, so it would be challenging to find one there. This is perfect for people who wish to live in a community. For people living in tiny towns, this is not an option because there aren’t many neighbors nearby. The area is too small to support numerous buildings.

5. An Improved Social Life

Large cities are home to a diverse population with a wide range of backgrounds and professions. There are many chances to socialize with different people. There are lots of places to look if you want to live close to the destinations you wish to visit. If you can’t afford a house, many apartments in the city are close to other places.

There aren’t many rental flats in remote areas, so it would be challenging to find one there. This is perfect for people who wish to live in a community. For people living in tiny towns, this is not an option because there aren’t many neighbors nearby. The area is too small to support numerous buildings.

6. More Effective Medical Services

Large cities are home to a diverse population with a wide range of backgrounds and professions. There are many chances to socialize with different people. If you are unable to reach the facility via phone, you have access to the Internet.

There are plenty of ambulances ready to transport you to the hospital if you need urgent care. The distance makes it challenging to get to the hospital quickly in the country. Furthermore, there are fewer EMTs on hand to help patients. There are fewer hospitals in the country than there are in the city, which limits your options for receiving treatment.

There are numerous hospitals in the city, so you have options for receiving medical attention. Go to a hospital in a city with a range of specialties to select a specialist who fits your demands. In remote places, you might not have that option because there aren’t many doctors there.

In the city, where family planning services are more readily available, mothers can visit Planned Parenthood and other family planning facilities. It’s possible that mothers in rural locations won’t have access to this service.

7. More Police and Security

Cities offer greater security than rural areas since police are on duty around the clock to patrol the region. There are plenty of police officers in the city, so you can obtain help if you need it.

CCTV cameras are in place to help the police solve crimes in the region. The cops can get to you faster if you live in an urban location than a rural one. Better communication means that the cops can get to you faster.

With increased access to technology, dispatchers can expedite the police’s arrival. The police can more easily apprehend criminals because of the city’s technological improvements. In remote locations, it could be more difficult for the police to capture criminals because of limited access to technology.

8. People Can Use Their Time More Efficiently

Urbanization has made it possible for people to use their time more wisely because large cities usually have excellent infrastructure and significantly shorter commutes between different institutions.

In large cities, taking your children to school, for example, might only take a few minutes, while in rural areas, it might take a long drive. This also applies to a great deal of other facets of daily life, such as the workplace.

Therefore, if you live in a large city, you most likely have the chance to save a significant amount of time in all facets of your daily life and allocate it to fun pursuits.

9. More Options for Entertainment

The recreational options in the city are what’s making it thrive. People can visit museums, libraries, beaches, casinos, parks, bars, clubs, restaurants, theaters, and other places. There is also no shortage of things to do during the day.

You will never get bored in the city because there are so many things to do. Due to the limited size of the nation, people do not have access to all of these possibilities, so there aren’t many entertainment options.

10. Tourist Attractions

Travelers from all across the world choose big cities over smaller countries. There are many different places in the city that people can visit. There are museums, landmarks, monuments, and other attractions for visitors to the city to view.

The city’s economy gains from the large sums of money that visitors spend there. Rural communities won’t make as much money as they would in a city because they aren’t common tourist destinations.

11. There Are More Stores in Cities

If you want additional shopping possibilities, you should move to a big city. There are many different types of malls in major cities, along with supermarkets, retail centers, and other places to shop.

Store diversity is usually limited in small towns. The towns are too small for there to be many places to shop for what you want. You would have to travel if you lived in a rural place to locate different stores to shop at.

12. Access to The Electrical and Sewage System

Another benefit of urbanization is that, in many large cities, the electrical and sewage systems have been upgraded over time and are now fully worry-free. People often take for granted having access to power since they are so used to it being available to them around the clock.

Nonetheless, there are still some rural residents who are cut off from the local electrical grid. You should be content to utilize all of urbanization’s facilities if you live in a city.

13. Increased Internet Connectivity

Urbanization also raised the need for advanced technologies, which made the Internet accessible to billions of people globally. Despite its shortcomings, the internet can be considered one of the greatest and most important innovations in human history. The internet has the power to dramatically raise our standard of living when used wisely.

14. Better Land Utilization

Urbanization can lead to better utilization of land. The world’s population is growing, and we will soon face severe levels of overcrowding; therefore, we must make the most use of our space.

Because more people can live in smaller apartments in large cities rather than the vast houses prevalent in rural areas, there is a significant reduction in the amount of space per person.

Urbanization may therefore lead to a considerable decline in the total demand for space per person, which could help address the issue of a growing global population.

15. Average Higher Wages in Cities

Cities usually feature greater pay as well as much better career possibilities overall. This is because office positions tend to pay considerably more than those requiring a lot of physical labor, and more office jobs are found in larger cities.

Thus, urbanization also made it possible to work in high-paying office occupations in metropolitan areas as opposed to being forced to do physically taxing jobs for meager pay.

Cons of Urbanization

  • Dense Population in Urban Areas
  • Spreading of Communicable Diseases
  • Purchasing a House Could Be Difficult
  • Regression in Rural Areas
  • Excessive Crime
  • Unemployment
  • The Cost of Living Has Risen
  • Lack of Privacy
  • The Pollution in Urban Areas
  • Waste Management Problems
  • Higher Chances for Homelessness
  • Development of Slums
  • Lack of Natural Spaces
  • Alteration of Local Ecosystems

1. Dense Population in Urban Areas

Many people move to cities in search of better job opportunities and a higher standard of living than they can find in smaller towns or villages. The issue is that too many people live in a tiny space, which has led to overcrowding in the city. This may be excessive for you if you’re used to living in a place with little traffic.

The streets are constantly congested with people, so you have to deal with traffic when you’re riding around. If you take public transportation, there will nearly always be a lot of people on it.

You have to deal with morning and evening rush hour traffic, which makes you arrive late for your appointments. Smaller towns move more slowly than larger cities because they have fewer inhabitants.

2. Spreading of Communicable Diseases

At the beginning of COVID-19, it was becoming more and more clear that urbanization serves as a breeding environment for viruses and diseases that spread quickly. It is difficult to keep oneself apart from others to stop the spread when living in such close quarters.

People who live in metropolitan settings are therefore more vulnerable to hazards and health problems. When people live in cities where people are often moving and interacting with others, it might be difficult to contain a contagious disease, even with safeguards.

3. Purchasing a House Could Be Difficult

Cities offer a greater selection of houses and apartments than do rural locations. Regretfully, as more people migrate into the city, there will be increased competition for available housing. You can have a lengthy search and a mile-long waiting list for a quality place to live given the amount of people trying to buy homes and rent flats.

If they are unable to get acceptable accommodation, people may end up living on the streets or relocating to unfavorable neighborhoods. This problem doesn’t exist in rural locations because there is less competition for housing and fewer residents.

4. Regression in Rural Areas

One of the main effects of urbanization is the decline of rural areas. The country’s population will drop as more people relocate to urban regions and fewer people dwell there overall. There won’t be many people living there, thus the community won’t be able to grow.

A shortage of workers in the farming sector would hinder agricultural production. Living in cities will make it much harder to get produce from farms, such as fruits and vegetables. This will have a big effect on the agricultural industry, which depends on farmers to grow crops and products.

5. Excessive Crime

Urban places have a higher danger of crime because of overpopulation. Because so many people are unemployed, there is a higher danger of crime than in a smaller town or hamlet. Compared to nicer areas, poorer communities have a higher crime rate. Crimes persist in the areas despite the police presence there.

Because most people in metropolitan areas cannot afford to buy things for themselves, robberies rank among the most common crimes committed there. People who live in small towns might not be accustomed to dealing with crimes daily and could be shocked by how common they can be in large cities.

The possibility of becoming a victim of a crime and the knowledge that crimes can occur at any time discourage some people from relocating to urban areas.

6. Unemployment

There is intense rivalry for jobs, even if larger cities may have more of them. Regretfully, there are more applicants for jobs than there are available jobs. The overpopulation may make it difficult to get good work. Some companies are hiring, but thousands of applicants are fighting for the few available spots.

The high unemployment rate in urban areas is a result of a shortage of jobs for individuals who need them. A large number of people will need to rely on government support to survive. Unemployment may be less of a problem in rural places because fewer people are vying for jobs there.

7. The Cost of Living Has Risen

The cost of living in a city is higher than that of a rural or village setting. In cities, rent and mortgage expenses can be exorbitant. Paying your rent or mortgage will be challenging if your income is insufficient. Your electricity bill will be significantly higher in the city than it would be in the country due to the abundance of technology.

Food costs far more because it must be purchased from a store, even though it is far less expensive to grow your food in the countryside. Because designer clothing is more readily available in urban regions than in rural ones, clothing costs are likewise higher there.

If you drive a car, you should be aware that gas prices change all year round. Because of the area’s higher worth, taxes in cities are also higher than in smaller towns or rural areas.

8. Lack of Privacy

You’ll have to bid adieu to privacy if you live in a city. You are always surrounded by people in cities. Whether you live in an apartment building or a house, your neighbors are extremely close to you. Since there are fewer neighbors in the country, you are free to speak and do as you choose.

In apartment buildings, the proximity of your neighbors makes it difficult to have privacy because they can overhear your talks. If your home is constructed right next to another, you won’t have much privacy. You’ll always need to pull your curtains to block your neighbors’ views because it’s easy for them to peep in your windows.

9. The Pollution in Urban Areas

Pollution has an impact on urban environments. The city has a lot of smog because of the bad air quality. Many city people smoke cigarettes, which contaminate the air and your lungs.

As a result of the high number of cars in the area, you are more likely to be exposed to exhaust fumes, which can be harmful to you. Additionally, smoke from factories and buildings affects the quality of the air.

Emergency vehicles’ loud sirens are one source of noise pollution. Cars regularly emit noise pollution, especially during rush hour, when they blow their horns. You won’t find it quiet if you’re used to it.

Light pollution has increased as a result of urbanization and the overuse of motor vehicles. Furthermore, because homes in large cities are often situated rather close to one another, you may experience light pollution if your neighbor, for whatever reason, leaves his lights on all night.

Big cities’ waste problem is partly a result of urbanization. Waste is frequently dumped in large quantities directly into the streets since so many people live in small spaces.

The way that cigarettes are disposed of is one notable example of this. You may have noticed that there are a lot of cigarette stubs lying around on our streets and that nobody seems to be concerned about getting rid of them properly.

10. Waste Management Problems

There is a significant waste management issue in certain large cities, particularly in underdeveloped areas of the world.

Backyards are often overflowing with waste because there is insufficient infrastructure for public waste management and because more garbage is produced than can be handled by municipalities.

Consequently, those unsanitary circumstances greatly increase the likelihood of diseases spreading.

11. Higher Chances for Homelessness

Many people may no longer be able to afford to pay such high prices for their housing if the urbanization issue causes rents to rise too high.

If they are forced to leave their home or flats, those individuals can potentially end themselves homeless. Therefore, as a result of urbanization, there may be a rise in the likelihood of homelessness.

12. Development of Slums

There is an increased chance of slum development as a result of urbanization. Many times, those in poverty cannot afford to rent an apartment in the city center. Slums, where residents must live in appalling conditions, are hence prone to develop along city limits.

13. Lack of Natural Spaces

There are fewer and fewer green spaces in many large cities as a result of urbanization. Due to the sharp increase in property values in many cities, municipalities are frequently forced to give up parks to sell the land to investors looking to erect large structures.

However, the general standard of living in large cities may significantly decline as a result of a dearth of green recovery places.

14. Alteration of Local Ecosystems

Numerous local ecosystems have also been dramatically impacted by urbanization. Large tracts of forest had to be cleared for settlement since the demand for houses rose sharply in many locations.

Many creatures were forced to relocate as a result of losing their native habitats. Numerous of them likewise saw a notable decline in population, which therefore resulted in a notable ecological imbalance.


Billions of people worldwide now live in drastically different quality of life as a result of urbanization. Although urbanization has many significant benefits, there are also significant drawbacks for many people. Ultimately, our goal should be to ensure that no one is left behind in rural areas to raise everyone’s standard of living worldwide.


Editor at EnvironmentGo! | providenceamaechi0@gmail.com | + posts

A passion-driven environmentalist by heart. Lead content writer at EnvironmentGo.
I strive to educate the public about the environment and its problems.
It has always been about nature, we ought to protect not destroy.

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